THE SCIENCE OF LUBRICANTS

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To help you better understand how your body intimate lubricant we have shared some basic scientific concepts and terms. As they apply to lubricants, this information can help you not to make a wrong choice of lubricant for yourself and your partner.

Osmolality - measure of dissolved particles per unit of water in the solution or serum (sometimes called concentration). The osmolality of the lubricant is important because the epithelial layer of the skin or the natural mucus of the body constantly tries to maintain homeostasis or balance osmolality.

· water moves freely back and forth across cell membranes in response to osmotic pressure exerted by the molecules of the extracellular fluid (lubrication) in the intracellular fluid of cells;

· osmolality is measured in millimole per kilogram of solvent, denoted as mOsm / kg;

· if the lubricant has a higher osmolality than the cells of the body, it is called hyperosmotic, makes the cells of the body to displace water with the aim of diluting the lubricant, which sometimes leads to cell death through dehydration. Lubricants, including glycerin and propylene glycol have a high rate of osmolality and, therefore, are hyperosmotic;

· hyperosmotic lubricant can irritate the skin and cause the epithelial layer of the skin to postpone, to dehydrate the mucus and leave the mucous membrane more susceptible to bacterial infections, or reducing STIs;

· if the grease has a lower osmolality than the cells of the body, it is called gipostaticeski and makes the body's cells to extract water from grease. This is what happens with lotions on the skin covering the greater part of the body;

· a perfect lubrication is isosmotic , that is it will have equal osmotic pressure, or its cells will have the same levels of hydration, and the cells of the body;

· isosmotic grease for the most part the secretion of the body will have an osmotic pressure of approximately 285-295 mOsm / kg 4.

 

The average osmolality of:

· Tap water ~ 3 mOsm / kg 5.

· Vaginal mucus ~ 260-290 mOsm / kg 6.

· Eco water-based ~ 269 mOsm / kg 5.

Endocrine disruptors - chemicals that affect the natural function and balance the endocrine system.

· the endocrine system consists of glands, hormones and hormone receptors, which regulate many vital body functions

Ksenoestrogena - chemicals that mimic estrogen, side effects caused by xenoestrogens are called estrogenic effects .

· estrogenic effects may include problems of sexual development, such as the feminization of male bodies or masculinising effect on the female body, as well as changes in gene expression

· parabens are considered xenoestrogens and have weak estrogenic effects

pH is a measure of the alkalinity or acidity of a liquid on a scale from 0-14, where 0 is most acidic and 14 alkaline.

· usually healthy bodies naturally regulate the pH with a certain balance of yeast, fungi and bacteria in combination with body fluids

· pH can become unbalanced when a foreign substance (e.g. lubricant) gives the level of bacteria or fungi

· imbalance in the vaginal pH can lead to bacterial vaginoza and yeast infection or serve as a warning sign or a symptom of a more serious disease

· vaginal and cervical pH levels naturally fluctuate with the menstrual cycle and depend on estrogen levels and also play an important role in fertility and conception

The average pH level:

· The vaginal pH is 3.8 to 4.6

· During pregnancy: 4,0-4,5

· Post menopausal: 4,5-7,5

· Sperm: 7,1-8,0

· Rectal liquid: 7,0 - 8,0

· Urine: 4.6-8.0

· Eco water-based: 4.3

 

Humidifiers - a substance added to a lubricant to retain moisture and slow the evaporation of water.

· sometimes affect the consistency of the lubricant and can increase the viscosity

· conventional humidifiers in intimate lubricants are propylene glycol, glycerol, urea or lactic acid

· natural / organic moisturizing alternatives are honey, Shea butter, coconut oil, and jojoba oil, aloe Vera, guar gum

Surfactants are chemical compounds that reduce the surface tension of the liquid.

· used for storage of grease components from the branch or from evaporation

Petrochemicals - chemicals obtained from petroleum or crude oil.

· many personal lubricants are composed of petrochemical products such as propylene glycol (PROPANEDIOL), benzene, benzoic acid and some surfactant

· often, such substances are indicators of Hyper-osmotic lubricants, which may dehydrate mucus, and irritation of the skin , make the mucosa more vulnerable to different kinds of infections 

Microbicides - substances added to lubricants as preservatives or spermicides, which kill or reduce the infectivity of viruses or bacteria.

· Usually a microbicide in intimate lubricants are nonoxynol, carrageenan, cellulose sulfate, chlorhexidine gluconate and sodium dodecyl sulfate

· Usually a microbicide in intimate lubricants are nonoxynol, carrageenan, cellulose sulfate, chlorhexidine gluconate and sodium dodecyl sulfate

· some alcohols, surfactants, phenols and acids can also act as microbicides in lubricants

· can cause skin irritations and death of epithelial cells

· with regular use of some microbicides that kill lactobacilli can lead to vaginose bacterial or yeast infection and make the mucosa more vulnerable to infections.

Produced work: 

1) Thomas, Pat. "Behind the label: KY Jelly". The ecologist . 24-2. http://www.theecologist.com .

2) Bakhshi, Rahul P. et "Giperosmolarna sexual lubricant causes epithelial damage in the distal intestine: potential for HIV transmission" . The journal "Infectious diseases". 195 (2007): 703-710.Web.

3) Abusuwaa, Raed, Deborah J. Anderson, Richard A. Cone, Timothy Hoen, Thomas R. Moench, XiXi Wong."Vaginal microbicides: detective toxicity in vivo that paradoxically increase the transfer of pathogens". BMC Infectious Diseases. 6 (2006): 90. Web.

4) Ayudhya, Kunjara Na, et al., "Wetter BetteR? Rating the-counter personal lubricants for safety and anti-HIV-1. PLOS ONE. 7 (2012): 1-14. Web 

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